Modeli bakterija 3D

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Bakterije su domen prokariotskih mikroorganizama. Bakterije obično imaju dužinu od nekoliko mikrona, njihove ćelije mogu imati različit oblik: od sfernog do štapastog oblika i u obliku spirale.

Bacteria is one of the first forms of life on Earth and occurs in almost all terrestrial habitats. They inhabit the soil, fresh and marine reservoirs, sour hot springs, radioactive waste and deep layers of the earth’s crust. Bacteria are often symbionts and parasites of plants and animals. Most bacteria are not described to date, and representatives of only half of the bacterial types can be grown in the laboratory. Bacteria are studying the science of bacteriology – a section of microbiology.

Jedan gram tla u prosjeku sadrži 40 milijuna bakterijskih stanica, au mililitru slatke vode može se naći milion stanica bakterija. Na Zemlji postoje bakterije 5 × 1030 i njihova biomasa premašuje ukupnu biomasu životinja i biljaka. Oni igraju važnu ulogu u cirkulaciji nutrijenata, na primjer, bakterije koje fiksiraju atmosferski dušik. Oni takođe razgrađuju ostatke životinja i biljaka kroz truljenje. Ekstremofilne bakterije, koje žive blizu hladnih i vrućih hidrotermalnih izvora, stvaraju energiju iz nerastvorljivih jedinjenja kao što su vodikov sulfid i metan. Pretpostavlja se da bakterije također žive u šupljini Mariana, koja ima dubinu od 11 kilometara. Postoje izveštaji da bakterije koje žive u kamenitim stenama 580 metara duboko ispod morskog dna na dubini od 2.6 kilometara u blizini severoistoka Sjedinjenih Država.

The human microflora is 39 trillion bacterial cells (the human body itself consists of about 30 trillion cells). The most numerous intestinal microflora, the skin is also inhabited by many bacteria. Most bacteria living in the human body are harmless due to the immune system’s containment, and some even benefit. A number of bacteria are pathogenic to humans. Infectious diseases such as cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy and bubonic plague are caused by bacteria. The largest number of deaths is caused by bacterial respiratory infections, and only tuberculosis kills 2 million people a year (mainly in sub-Saharan Africa). In developed countries antibiotics are used not only for the treatment of human diseases, but also in livestock breeding, due to which the problem of resistance to antibiotics is becoming more and more relevant. In the industry, bacteria are used in the treatment of sewage, to eliminate oil spills, to obtain cheese and yogurt, to restore gold, palladium, copper and other metals from ores, as well as in biotechnology, to produce antibiotics and other compounds.